Speech Sound Disorders (Articulation and Phonological Impairments)
This can include being unable to produce specific sounds, having difficulty producing certain sounds correctly, omitting sounds or syllables within words, or substituting one sound for another. This often makes the child difficult to understand. Click here for more information.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication/Assistive Technology
AAC is the broad term that refers to all forms of communication other than oral speech that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas. People with severely limited speech or language or limited motoric ability use communication aids to supplement existing speech or to replace speech that is not functional. These systems can range from low-tech picture and symbol communication boards and books, simple voice output devices, up to sophisticated electronic devices and tablets. Click here for more information.
Social/Pragmatic Communication Disorders
This can be a distinct diagnosis or can often occur within the context of other conditions such as Autism Spectrum Disorders, ADHD, or traumatic brain injury. Children with these disorder may have difficulty making or keeping friends, understanding humor and sarcasm, may monopolize a conversation or interrupt, have difficulty taking turns, have difficulty reading body language or facial expressions, or may be overly literal and concrete in their thinking. Click here for more information.
Receptive and Expressive Language Disorders
Expressive language can be spoken or written and include how children put words together to form correct sentences, use of correct grammar (i.e. pronouns, verb endings, etc), and vocabulary knowledge. Receptive language has to do with how we understand and interpret language. An impairment in receptive language could include difficulty answering questions, trouble with comprehension, or difficulty following directions. A child with a language disorder might demonstrate difficulty at school with their academics. Click here for more information.
Language-Based Learning Disabilities (Reading, Spelling, and Writing)
Despite most individuals with Language-Based Learning Disabilities having average or above average intelligence, they may struggle with a wide variety of communication and academic skills such as listening, speaking, reading, writing and doing math calculations.. These difficulties are caused by brain differences often present from birth. Click here for more information.